Here is an HTML version of an advertisement from the op-ed page of the New York Times of 26 September 2002, signed by 33 scholars of international relations.


As scholars of international security affairs, we recognize that war is sometimes necessary to ensure our national security or other vital interests. We also recognize that Saddam Hussein is a tyrant and that Iraq has defied a number of U.N. resolutions. But military force should be used only when it advances U.S. national interests. War with Iraq does not meet this standard.

The United States should maintain vigilant containment of Iraq—using its own assets and the resources of the United Nations—and be prepared to invade Iraq if it threatens to attack America or its allies. That is not the case today. We should concentrate instead on defeating al Qaeda.

Robert J. Art

Brandeis University

Richard K. Betts

Columbia University

Dale C. Copeland

University of Virginia

Michael C. Desch

University of Kentucky

Sumit Ganguly

University of Texas

Charles L. Glaser

University of Chicago

Alexander L. George

Stanford University

Richard K. Herrmann

Ohio State University

George C. Herring

University of Kentucky

Robert Jervis

Columbia University

Chaim Kaufmann

Lehigh University

Carl Kaysen


Elizabeth Kier

University of Washington

Deborah Larson


Jack S. Levy

Rutgers University

Peter Liberman

Queens College

John J. Mearsheimer

University of Chicago

Steven E. Miller

Harvard University

Charles C. Moskos

Northwestern University

Robert A. Pape

University of Chicago

Barry R. Posen


Robert Powell


George H. Quester

University of Maryland

Richard Rosecrance


Thomas C. Schelling

University of Maryland

Randall L. Schweller

Ohio State University

Glenn H. Snyder

University of North Carolina

Jack L. Snyder

Columbia University

Shibley Telhami

University of Maryland

Stephen van Evera


Stephen M. Walt

Harvard University

Kenneth N. Waltz

Columbia University

Cindy Williams


Institutions listed for identification purposes only.

Paid for by the signatories and individual contributors (773-702-8667; 617-495-5712).

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